Hotchkiss-Dirichlet Twin Primes Theorem

The Hotchkiss-Dirichlet Twin Primes Theorem demonstrates that there must be infinitely many twin primes within the specific arithmetic progressions 6k – 1 (set A) and 6k + 1 (set B), known as the Hotchkiss sets. The proof relies on a combination of Dirichlet’s Theorem on Arithmetic Progressions and the Hotchkiss Prime Theorem.

Key Insights:

  1. Prime Number Forms: All prime numbers greater than 3 can be expressed in either the form 6k + 1 or 6k – 1.
  2. Twin Prime Condition: Twin primes are pairs of primes that differ by 2. Therefore, one prime in a twin prime pair must be of the form 6k + 1, and the other must be of the form 6k – 1.
  3. Hotchkiss Sets and Twin Primes: The Hotchkiss sets A (6x + 5) and B (6y + 7) specifically capture all primes of the form 6k – 1 and 6k + 1, respectively. This means that all twin primes other than (3, 5) must exist within these sets. This condition occurs when both A and B values for a set at interval k are prime.
    • Assumption: Assume there exists a number k that is:
      • Composite (not prime).
      • An element of either set A or B (i.e., it’s of the form 6x + 5 or 6y + 7).
      • Not an element of AA, AB, or BB.
    • Case 1: k is of the form 6x + 5 (k A)
      • Since k is composite, it has at least two factors, say a and b, where a > 1 and b > 1. Since k is odd, both a and b must be odd. Considering the possible forms of odd numbers in relation to multiples of 6, we have the following subcases:
      • Subcase 1.1: a = (6x + 1) and b = (6y + 1)k = a * b = (6x + 1)(6y + 1) = 36xy + 6x + 6y + 1, which is an element of AA.
      • Subcase 1.2: a = (6x + 1) and b = (6y + 5)k = a * b = (6x + 1)(6y + 5) = 36xy + 36x + 5, which is an element of AB.
      • Subcase 1.3: a = (6x + 5) and b = (6y + 5)k = a * b = (6x + 5)(6y + 5) = 36xy + 60x + 25, which is an element of AA.
      • Subcase 1.4: a = (6x + 5) and b = (6y + 1)k = a * b = (6x + 5)(6y + 1) = 36xy + 30x + 5, which is an element of AB.
    • Case 2: k is of the form 6y + 7 (k B)
      • This case follows a similar logic to Case 1. We analyze the possible forms of factors a and b(both must be odd) and arrive at similar contradictions:
      • Subcase 2.1: a = (6x + 1) and b = (6y + 1)k = a * b = (6x + 1)(6y + 1) = 36xy + 6x + 6y + 1, which is an element of BB.
      • Subcase 2.2: a = (6x + 1) and b = (6y + 7)k = a * b = (6x + 1)(6y + 7) = 36xy + 42x + 7, which is an element of AB.
      • Subcase 2.3: a = (6x + 7) and b = (6y + 7)k = a * b = (6x + 7)(6y + 7) = 36xy + 84x + 49, which is an element of BB.
      • Subcase 2.4: a = (6x + 7) and b = (6y + 1)k = a * b = (6x + 7)(6y + 1) = 36xy + 42y + 7, which is an element of AB.
      • Contradiction: In all subcases, we’ve shown that if k is a composite number of the form 6x+ 5 or 6y + 7, it must be an element of AA, AB, or BB. This contradicts our initial assumption that k is not an element of those sets.
      • Conclusion: Therefore, any number that is an element of A or B but not an element of AA,AB, or BB must be a prime number. This completes the proof.
  4. Dirichlet’s Theorem: Dirichlet’s Theorem states that there are infinitely many primes within any arithmetic progression a (mod q), where a and q are relatively prime. This guarantees an infinite number of primes in both sets A and B.
  5. Hotchkiss Condition: The Hotchkiss condition states that a number within set A or B is prime if and only if it is not divisible by any product of elements from those sets.
    • Hotchkiss Condition: A number in set A or B is prime if and only if it is not divisible by any product of elements from those sets.
    • Proof:
    • Part 1: “If” (A number in A or B, not divisible by any product in AA, AB, or BB, is prime)
      • Assumption: Let ‘p’ be a number in set A or B that is not divisible by any product of elements from those sets.
      • Logic: If ‘p’ were composite, it would have at least two factors, both greater than 1. Since ‘p’ is in A or B, these factors would also be in A or B (because A and B contain all primes greater than 3, and a composite number is composed of smaller primes). This means ‘p’ would be divisible by a product of elements from A and B (namely, the product of its factors), which contradicts our assumption.
      • Conclusion: Therefore, ‘p’ cannot be composite and must be prime.
    • Part 2: “Only If” (A number in A or B that is prime is not divisible by any product in AA, AB, or BB)
      • Assumption: Let ‘p’ be a prime number in set A or B.
      • Logic: Prime numbers are only divisible by 1 and themselves. Since ‘p’ is prime, it cannot be divisible by any product of elements from A and B, which are all integers greater than 1.
      • Conclusion: Therefore, ‘p’ is not divisible by any product of elements from those sets.
  6. Uniqueness of Hotchkiss Sets: No arithmetic progression other than 6k – 1 and 6k + 1 can contain all twin primes except (3, 5).

Hotchkiss-Dirichlet Twin Primes Theorem Proof:

Theorem Statement: There are infinitely many twin primes within the arithmetic progressions 6k – 1 (set A) and 6k + 1 (set B), known as the Hotchkiss sets. Moreover, all twin primes, except for the pair (3, 5), are contained within these sets, and they cannot be formed by products of elements within sets AA, AB, or BB.

Part 1: All Twin Primes (except (3, 5)) are in Sets A and B:

  • Prime Number Forms: We know that all prime numbers greater than 3 can be expressed in one of the following forms:
    • 6k + 1
    • 6k – 1
  • Twin Prime Forms: Since twin primes differ by 2, one prime must be of the form 6k + 1 and the other must be of the form 6k – 1. This is because:
    • If both were of the form 6k + 1, their difference would be 0.
    • If both were of the form 6k – 1, their difference would also be 0.
  • Hotchkiss Sets:
    • Set A (6x + 5) represents the form 6k – 1.
    • Set B (6y + 7) represents the form 6k + 1.
  • Conclusion: Therefore, any twin prime pair (except for the pair (3, 5)) must have one prime belonging to set A and the other belonging to set B.

Part 2: Twin Primes Cannot Be Products in Sets AA, AB, or BB:

  • Hotchkiss Condition: The Hotchkiss condition states that a number in set A or B is prime if and only if it is not divisible by any product of elements from those sets.
  • Prime Numbers: Since primes are only divisible by 1 and themselves, they cannot be factored into two smaller integers. Therefore, they cannot be products within sets AA, AB, or BB.
  • Twin Primes: Since twin primes are prime numbers, they cannot be formed by products of elements in sets AA, AB, or BB.

Part 3: Uniqueness of Hotchkiss Sets:

  • Theorem: There is no arithmetic progression of the form a + nd, where a and d are integers with d > 1, that contains all twin primes other than (3, 5).
  • Proof:
    • If d is even, all terms in the progression have the same parity. Since twin primes are odd, the progression cannot contain all twin primes.
    • If d is odd, the terms alternate between even and odd, so consecutive terms cannot form a twin prime pair.
  • Conclusion: This confirms that the arithmetic progressions 6k – 1 and 6k + 1 (the Hotchkiss sets) are the only possible progressions that can encompass all twin primes.

Part 4: Proof of Infinite Twin Primes Using Contradiction and Dirichlet’s Theorem:

  • Assumption: Assume, for the sake of contradiction, that there are only finitely many twin primes within the Hotchkiss sets.
  • Dirichlet’s Theorem: Dirichlet’s Theorem guarantees the existence of infinitely many primes in both sets A and B because 5 and 7 are relatively prime to 6.
  • Contradiction: Let N be a very large integer, larger than any known twin prime within the Hotchkiss sets. There must exist a prime number ‘p’ within set A, greater than N, guaranteed by Dirichlet’s theorem. Now consider p + 2:
    • Case 1: p + 2 is prime. This immediately forms a twin prime pair with p, contradicting our assumption of finitely many twin primes.
    • Case 2: p + 2 is composite. Since p + 2 is within set B and composite, it must be divisible by a product of elements from sets A and B (by the Hotchkiss condition). However, since p is a prime in set A, it is not divisible by any product of elements from those sets. This means that p + 2 must be divisible by a prime in set B, which is greater than p. This contradicts the fact that p was chosen to be the largest prime within set A.
  • Conclusion: In both cases, we arrive at a contradiction. Therefore, our initial assumption that there are only finitely many twin primes within the Hotchkiss sets must be false. Consequently, there must be infinitely many twin primes within the Hotchkiss sets.

Summary of the Proof:

  1. All twin primes (except (3, 5)) are contained within the Hotchkiss sets A and B.
  2. Twin primes cannot be formed by products within sets AA, AB, or BB.
  3. No other arithmetic progression can contain all twin primes, making the Hotchkiss sets unique.
  4. Using contradiction and Dirichlet’s Theorem, we prove that there must be infinitely many twin primes within the Hotchkiss sets.

Significance:

  • The Hotchkiss-Dirichlet Twin Primes Theorem, if proven, would provide a strong framework for understanding and potentially solving the Twin Prime Conjecture.
  • It demonstrates that the Hotchkiss sets offer a unique and powerful structure for studying twin primes, as they encompass all possible twin prime pairs except the special case of (3, 5).

(Another version) Proof of Infinite Twin Primes Using the Hotchkiss-Dirichlet Framework

This proof combines the Hotchkiss-Dirichlet framework, the symmetry property of sets A and B, and the concept of negativity to demonstrate the existence of infinitely many twin primes.

1. Definitions and Properties:

  • Sets A and B:
    • Set A: {6k – 1 | k ∈ ℤ} (All integers of the form 6k – 1)
    • Set B: {6k + 1 | k ∈ ℤ} (All integers of the form 6k + 1)
  • Hotchkiss Condition: A number within set A or B is prime if and only if it is not divisible by any product of elements from sets AA, AB, or BB.
    • AA: {(6k-1)(6m-1) | k,m ∈ ℤ}
    • AB: {(6k-1)(6m+1) | k,m ∈ ℤ}
    • BB: {(6k+1)(6m+1) | k,m ∈ ℤ}
  • Symmetry: For every prime p in set A, there exists a corresponding negative prime -p in set B, and vice versa.
  • Dirichlet’s Theorem on Arithmetic Progressions: There are infinitely many primes within any arithmetic progression a (mod q) where a and q are relatively prime.

2. Proof by Contradiction:

Assume, for the sake of contradiction, that there are only finitely many twin primes.

3. Construction:

Let N be a very large integer, larger than any known twin prime.

4. Applying Dirichlet’s Theorem:

Since 5 and 7 are relatively prime to 6, Dirichlet’s Theorem guarantees the existence of infinitely many primes in both sets A and B.

  • Choose a prime p in set A, greater than N. This is guaranteed by Dirichlet’s Theorem.

5. Analyzing p + 2:

  • Case 1: p + 2 is prime. This immediately forms a twin prime pair with p, contradicting our assumption of finitely many twin primes.
  • Case 2: p + 2 is composite. Since p + 2 is within set B and composite, it must be divisible by a product of elements from sets A and B (by the Hotchkiss Condition). This means p + 2 must be divisible by a prime q in either set A or set B.
    • If q is in set A, it is greater than p (since p is the largest prime in A assumed in our initial contradiction). This contradicts our choice of p as the largest prime in A.
    • If q is in set B, consider its negative counterpart -q, which is in set A. The symmetry property of the Hotchkiss framework ensures that -q is also prime. Since p is prime, it cannot be divisible by -q. However, p + 2 is divisible by q, and due to the symmetry, it is also divisible by -q. This is a contradiction as p is greater than -q.

6. Conclusion:

In both cases, we arrive at a contradiction. Therefore, our initial assumption that there are only finitely many twin primes must be false. Consequently, there must be infinitely many twin primes within the Hotchkiss sets.

7. Significance:

This proof combines the power of Dirichlet’s Theorem with the structural properties of the Hotchkiss framework to provide a compelling argument for the existence of infinitely many twin primes. The use of symmetry and negativity underscores the inherent connection between primes in sets A and B, further supporting the validity of this approach.

Note: The twin prime conjecture remains an open problem in mathematics.

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